The 599-page withdrawal agreement covers the following main areas: This was triggered by Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of an EU Member State, thus opening a two-year countdown to withdrawal. publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/58-01/0001/20001.pdf The Declaration on Future Relations between the European Union and the United Kingdom, also known as the Political Declaration, is a non-binding declaration that was negotiated and signed with the binding and broader withdrawal agreement on the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union (EU), known as Brexit, and at the expected end of the transition period. The agreement was revised as part of the Johnson Department renegotiation in 2019. The amendments adjust about 5% of the text.  7.After Section 78 Insert – safeguard measures in the EU withdrawal agreement… The withdrawal agreement provides for a transitional period until 31 December 2020, during which time the UK will remain in the internal market, to ensure the smooth flow of trade until a long-term relationship is concluded. If no agreement is reached by then, the UK will leave the single market without a trade deal on 1 January 2021. The withdrawal agreement is closely linked to a non-binding political declaration on future relations between the EU and the UK. On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union.
The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed.  In the House of Commons, Northern Ireland Minister Brandon Lewis acknowledged on Tuesday that the law would violate international law in a “very specific and limited” manner. After an unprecedented vote on 4 December 2018, MEPs ruled that the UK government was not respecting Parliament because it refused to give Parliament full legal advice on the consequences of its proposed withdrawal terms.  The focus of the consultation was on the legal effect of the “backstop” agreement for Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the rest of the United Kingdom with regard to the customs border between the EU and the United Kingdom and its consequences on the Good Friday agreement which ended the unrest in Northern Ireland, including whether the UK would be assured, in accordance with the proposals, of being able to leave the EU in a practical sense. As part of the English votes for English laws procedure, the spokesperson certifies bills or bills provisions that concern only England and/or England and Wales. With regard to financial accounts, the spokesperson may certify funding applications or clauses or timetables exclusively relating to England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (Similar information about the invoice itself is available in the explanatory notes- see above.). On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed, by 329 votes to 299, to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable it had proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the law would be overturned.   The agreement defines goods, services and related processes.